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Rubin Yu.

Dr. of Economics, Professor, Rector, President, Moscow University for Industry and Finance «Synergy», Russian Association for Entrepreneurship Education, Moscow

Strategy and tactics of competitive behavior

Before the businesses choose to use a set of executive measures, a number of prompt steps or make a set of certain arrangements, the businesses' competitive behavior model is shaped at the strategic level where a strategy/set of strategies are formed that become a basis of the business strategic behavior. As M. Porter notes, the leadership and success are based upon the business' ability to consistently, on a day-to-day basis, implement a chosen strategy. Competent behavior of the competitive market players is always based on the professional businesses' strict dividing the behavior levels and avoiding the overlaps when participating in the competition.

Discussion questions of modern competition theory

The paper correspond detailed statement about author views expounded at the roundtable discus¬sion «Questions of a Competition Theory» which was organized by the Modern Competition Journal and took place on 19th of May 2010 in Moscow University of Industry and Finance. In a context of the evolution of views on a competition the paper examines an opportunity of the competition theory formation as a separate field of knowledge. Expediency of the competition actions (as systemically important sign of the modern competition) research; necessity of involving in consideration not only consumers, but also fair competitors as competition beneficiary are substantiated. Competitiveness place in the competition edifice is investigated. An actor's professional interests and competencies in competition behavior area are examined.


Russian entrepreneurship as area of Russian education

In this issue copy of the author’s speech at the theoretical and practical seminar on entrepreneurship education in HEIs is published. The seminar was organized by Russian Association for Entrepreneurship Education (RUAEE) and became a part of the ICER BRIC International Conference on Entrepreneurship in transition times: Issues and challenge, which took a place on 14–16 November 2012 in Moscow, Russia. Read more...

What is the competition? (introduction to the theory of competition behaviour)

The article reveals the theoretical definitions of competition, as a philosophical, economic, social, psychological, and biological phenomena. The paper describes causes of manifestations of competition in today’s economy. The author formulates a definition of the competitive environment, the competitive environment and competitive features. The article explains the concept of competitive results and describes the conditions for achieving them. The author defines the competitive advantages and disadvantages, strengths and weaknesses of competitors. The article also discloses a process for assessing competitive advantages and disadvantages of market participants. This article is based on the materials of the first chapter of the new, forthcoming textbook «Competition».

Competitive position of market participants in a competitive environment

The article describes the general theoretical definition of the competitive position and competitive positioning of participants in economic competition. The author examines the different types of competitive position and background of their formation. The author formulates understanding of barriers to competitive positioning from external competitive environment. This article is based on the materials of the second chapter of the new edition of a textbook for bachelors «Competition», preparing for publication.

System of competitive actions of market participants

The article considers multicriteria classification of competitive action of companies. The author emphasizes the universal classification of competitive actions, applicable regardless of the industry specificity of competitive behavior. This article offers a general definition of «competitive action», «space of competitive action». The author propose a classification of competitive action on the variety of criteria: sides of competition, competition destinations, type, nature, kind of competitive action. Classification of competitive action on price and non-price methods are presented, especially: product differentiation, competition for a place in the value chain. The author reveals fundamental characteristics of competitive actions, needs to be consider by rivals for choosing competitive actions to implement within competitive process.

Strategies for competitive actions

The article deals with the general theoretical definition of the strategy of competitive actions. The author describes the strategic group of competitive action, draws the contours of the strategic management level of competitive action, reveals the classification of types and kinds of competi- tive strategies. For each type of competitive strategies The author indicates the advantages and disadvantages, the base terms of implementation.

Competitive actions management

The article deals with the system of management of competitive action. The author describes the place of the competitive action management in the overall enterprise management system, consistently reveals all the main components of competitive action management, such as: competitive analysis and audit tools of competitors, target planning of competitive action, the establishment of competitive dispositions, predicting the response of competitive action, the selection of competitive «field», resource and organizational providing of competitive action, the control of execution of competitive actions, the competitive motivation. The author describes a typical set of techniques of simple and weighted comparison of competitors, suggests ways of formation of vectors of competitive differences, methods of making a competitive maps of market, and a number of other instruments of competitive management. The article also describes the characteristics of competitive actions that are meaningful in their planning phase: effectiveness, strength, quality, speed, intensity, stability of competitive action. The author also describes the main areas of competitive motivation of employees of the company: strengthening of personal competitiveness, inspiration of competitive self-management and competitive self-motivation.

Development of competitive strategies

The article describes the mechanisms of determining the company’s strategic goals of participation in the competition. The author describes the processes of identifying the firm’s strategic areas of business and competition, of detection of strategic competitive conditions, of definition and classification of company`s strategic environment, of development of a strategic competitive disposition. The author reveals the content of the strategic management of competitive action, describes the stages of planning strategically significant competitive actions, competitive results and competitive potential. The article also reveals the content of processes of planning of strategic competitive fields. The author describes the possibility of combining different competitive strategies. The article considers the process of incentives, organizing and application controlling of competitive strategies.

Tactics of competitive actions of market participants

The article reveals the difference of tactical and strategic competitive behavior of firms. The author describes the system of tactical management of competitive actions of firms, distinguishes tactical competitive operations and tactical models of competitive action. The author emphasizes the relationship between planning of tactical operations, the balance of competitive forces between tactical rivals, and the definition of tactical competitive advantages and disadvantages of the competing firms. The author reveals the content of tactical competitive dispositions, including development of tactical operations and organizational scenario of competitive behavior of firms. Also the author identifies and describes the components of management of tactical operations: an organizational and motivational conditions, operational control of tactical operations, and determination of the degree of sustainability of competitive action.

Tactical models and operations in competition

The article is devoted to the tactical level of competitive behavior of firms. Author postulates firms competitive tactics as a set of competitive action, grouped in the tactical models, and actually implemented in tactical operations against certain tactical competitors in a short period of time. The author emphasizes that different tactical models implement some competitive strategies of firms, and offers a matrix of types of competitive strategies of market participants and types of tactical models of competitive action. 
The author shows, that the classification of tactical models of competitive actions in general should follow the classification of types of competitive action (offensive, defensive, combination). So the author identifies tactical model: front and flank attack; deaf, valid and preventive defense; counterattack; guerrilla warfare; retreat; rational self isolation; non-conflict; consent; joint defense and joint offence; and tactical maneuvers. 
The author understands the tactical maneuvers as a combination of competitive actions of market participants, who considered making any changes in the realization of tactical operations. The article consistently describes and characterizes all offered types of tactical models of competitive action.

Tactical tricks in companies competitive interactions

This article continues the series of papers that reveal the foundations of the theory of behavioral competition by companies in the market. The author describes the aims and objectives of application of tactical tricks in information space of competition, particularly in image-building. Tactical tricks are implemented by firms as part of the tactical combinational operations through methods of information dissemination and management of attention of competitive environment participants. From all variety of tactical tricks the author identifies and describes in details three types of tactical tricks: tactical ploys — demonstration of behavioral manners via realization of competitive actions, filling external atributs of business with attractive images, ways to make images more public or refrain from publicity; tactical puzzles — creating and disseminating illusions, manipulating by stereotypical images, competitive advantages simulations; tactical traps — tactical feints, baits and bluff.

Competitive status of market participants

The author offers definition of the competitive status of a market participant, discloses notion of the competitive environment and competitive forces. The author identifies the competitive status of company as companies role in the innovative transformation of the market environment: innovator, conformist, exploiter, niche actor. 
The author consistently reveals the peculiarities of firms in competitive status as a leader, challenger for the leadership, the middle peasants (the representative of the crowd), and the outsider. Also author identifies the main features of the paired competitive dispositions of firms with different competitive status. 
Paper describes some tactical model, implemented by leader against challengers. The author reveals content of the concept of «burden of leadership» and formulates «commandments» of the leader and the challengers for the leadership. 
The paper reveals the definition of the competitive status of market participants by comparison competition in business and competition in nature (by A. Yudanov).The article also describes the competitive status of the debutant, debutante types and formulates 10 rules of successful debut.

Entrepreneurship education: the way of rooting in University segment of Russian education

Entrepreneurship is the main vector of the global economy evolution throughout its long history. In the modern world, entrepreneurship has become a way of internationalization of social life, inter-ethnic and inter-cultural cooperation of people. Not in doubt, the key importance of entrepreneur-ship as a system-forming element of the modern Russian economy. However, entrepreneurship is still not recognized in Russia as a direction of socially useful activity of people and respected profession. There are several factors that limit the formation of positive images of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in the minds of Russians and not allow you to put entrepreneurship on a par with other professions. The biggest problem in terms of rooting constructive ideas about modern entrepreneurship is the lack of a definition of specific items and objects of professional activity of entrepreneurs, the enterprise resources and business processes, the mission of the entrepreneurship in the Russian economy, the professional interests of entrepreneurs and the list of professional functions, that are the exclusive competency of the entrepreneurs.

Teaching tactics of competitive actions in the modern master's degree

Teaching tactics of competitive actions in the modern master's degree Read more...

Competition: the Influence of Personality of the Companies Leaders

The article is the first published in Russian in which races consistently noticeable issue about the influence of personality on competition in the entrepreneur as. Adhering to a multidisciplinary approach to the study of competition, the author identifies the main segments of such influence competitive motivation of the leaders of the companies, their degree of professional competence in matters of personal involvement in competition and in management issues of competitive actions, their personal competitiveness, as well as personal qualities and personal inclination, professional important to participate in the competition and invites colleagues to discussion. The article provides a rationale for the concepts of competitive competence, competitive ability, trait competitiveness, competitive spirit, a competitive way of thinking, manners and styles of competitive behavior of companies in competitive environment.

Entrepreneurial self-management

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About the constructive theory of competition in entrepreneurship

This paper considers how a constructive and functional approach to studying competition in entrepreneurship can be applied in accordance with interdisciplinary methodology. It discusses problems concerning the foundations of a constructive theory of competition and describes the role played by the an entrepreneur’s competitive functions during the creation, maintenance, and development stages of both their own businesses and other businesses, as well as within the larger space of the competitive environment. The authors draw attention to the need for further research on the diverse array of functions carried out on a multi-criteria basis by participants in modern enterprise, on the distinctions between entities participating in competition, and on how the structures of competitive actions can be systematized according to their identified types, methods, directions, behavioral characteristics, and level structures. The article also addresses the question of what impact the entrepreneur’s personal characteristics have on how their competitive actions are planned and executed. The author concludes that a constructive theory of competition could be utilized in the scientific effort to justify a consistent core system of theoretical ideas on the competitive activities of enterprise and its evolution while also establishing consistency in the use of «competitive» and «semi-competitive» terminology in theory and in practice. Keywords: the competition theory, the constructive approach to the research of competition in entrepreneurship, the competitive function, objects and construction of the competitive actions, the competitive advantages and disadvantages, the competitive position, functional role of competitive groups, the character of competitive interaction, developing, constructing of the competitive actions.

Entrepreneurship theory: space of functional approach

This paper considers how constructive and functional approaches to studying entrepreneurship can be applied in accordance with interdisciplinary methodology. It discusses problems of identification of entrepreneurs — identification and systematization of the executable of their professional functions due to the target goals of business’s role in life and which form the content of entrepreneurship as one of areas of human activity. The author draws attention to the need to systematize entrepreneurial functions, which form the core of the identity of the entrepreneurial profession and forms its unique functional specificity, which distinguishes it from the professions of manager, engineer, inventor, designer, economist, and other professions that have their own functional specificity. The article also considers the question of correlation of the core identity of entrepreneurial profession with entrepreneurial functions and personality traits of entrepreneurs. Namely, it is described the structure of blocks of personal traits of entrepreneurs necessary for them to conduct successful entrepreneurial activity. The author concludes that the application of the functional approach would make it possible to successfully advance in solving the scientific problem of substantiating the irreducible identification core of the system of theoretical entrepreneurship concepts, its evolution, as well as to achieve an orderly application of the «entrepreneurial» terminology in theory and practice.