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Kurnysheva I.

Dr of Economy, IE Russian Academy of Sciences

Taxation and fiscal system improvement trends

Sustainable development and national economy competitiveness level increase are only possible if the macroeconomics development trends change and the very impact-making factors of the development change. Today it is impossible to raise the Russian economy competitiveness level, introduce some innovations and upgrade the Russian economy as it lacks a solid financial base that is linked with other necessary financial resources. The upgrade, innovation introduction and modernization that are the base for the competitiveness level increase are hampered for a number of reasons. Last but not the least, the fact that the role of the state in the development of the finan¬cial resources is played down is one of the above reasons.

Competition in a disorganized market

As it is known, Russia lacked many prerequisites in the early 90-s needed to ensure that the competitive market mechanisms would contribute to the efficient economy formation. Different market instruments use is a characteristic of the developed economies. It is natural that the tools' efficiency is fairly restricted if they are used in the economies where the transition period is not over. Nevertheless, Russia created its competitive market regulations during a relatively short period of time; many market development instruments and mechanisms have been used; the business community uses the terms competition and competitiveness widely; we can see some business success stories. However, we can see that there are no prerequisites yet that could become the basis for the Rus¬sian economy competitiveness as the deep economic crises of the past hamper the competitive environment development.

Russian human capital in the competitors' world: the special features

The world economy is on the verge of a new wave of the technology change. After the changes have occurred, the human capital would play a much more important role in the social and economic development and make redundant many of the factors that have been traditionally contributing to the economic growth. The authors of the recent annual report published by the World Economic Forum consider the HR development as one of the fundamental groups of factors that contribute to the national economy competitiveness level change. The Russian economists have begun thoroughly examining the role the human resources play in the economy only recently, and the human capital is a factor that determines the competitiveness-related ratings in the post-industrial economies.

Development of market institutions and rules of competition in Russian economy

Article describes the package of basic economic, political, legal and social rules — forming institutional environment of the market — thereupon the government market and antimonopoly policy is conducted.

Institutional prerequisites of development of the competition and competitive relations

The purpose of the study was to develop an institutional framework of cooperation between the state, competition and antitrust policy. The solution of the problem of sustainability of positive changes in the dynamics and structure of economic development is provided in the world practice a balanced impact on both market mechanisms and the mechanism of regulating influence of the state. The article shows that the synergy of the functions of state bodies and functions of competition as a market mechanism in the long term determines the model of development management of the reproductive process. Similar to the format of the management model according to the new solves the issues of borders growth and structural shifts, and transfers the problem from the limited sphere of opportunities of one state or only market in the field of creative synergies emerging new economic partnership. The formation of the institutional prerequisites for overcoming the dysfunctions of public administration in the sphere of anti-monopoly activities and competitive relationships should be systemic and linked to measures to overcome the dysfunction at a higher hierarchical level of control. The results of the analysis, conclusions and recommendations can be used in further researches of the problems of interrelation between the state, competition and antitrust policy.

Structural modernization of the Russian economy in the context of the modern competitive environment

The purpose of article was to analyse the reasons of economic lag of Russia and to prove methodological and practical measures for increase in competitiveness of economy during her structural modernization. In this regard: the factors promoting the social and economic growth of national competitiveness are investigated and classified, special attention is paid to the system of internal and external factors; a number of features of the present stage of modernization of the Russian economy distinguishing her from the previous attempts is revealed; the complex of theoretical and practical questions of a role of the institutional environment, the competitive relations is considered; features, dynamics and tendencies of the key indicators characterizing the competitive environment are analysed; a number of features of interrelation and interaction between modernization, the competition and competitiveness of economy of the present stage is revealed; the system group of types of regional competitive advantages is carried out and recommendations about their elimination are made; world and national lines of the social and economic tendencies defining new limits of freedom and restrictions of the competitive relations are designated; prerequisites of emergence and distribution of cartels in the Russian economy are revealed and systematized; offers on development of antimonopoly activity are made.