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“Modern competition" is the unique academic interdisciplinary journal which is devoted completely to the questions of competition and business. The journal covers theoretical and practical aspects of competition, its strategies and tactics, competitiveness of business, competition regulation in economics.

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Bachelor degree university program: common context of learning entrepreneurship courses

The article is devoted to the internal context dependence of the training courses studied under the entrepreneurship program in the bachelor’s degree. Unlike other approaches, the authors extend the context dependence to any training courses included in the training program. Approaches to the study of the management cycle of training courses by future entrepreneurs are analyzed. Using the example of structuring the content of the training course “Human Resource Management”, it is shown how the training program should be oriented to form the general professional competencies necessary for graduates to have a successful career in entrepreneurship. The article has practical significance, since the developed approach to teaching disciplines was successfully used in real business in competitive conditions, as well as theoretical significance, due to the contribution of the conclusions obtained in the article to the development of scientific ideas about the place of entrepreneurship in the educational process and the connection with the taught disciplines of the management cycle with the training of future entrepreneurs. The use of this article can also help educational organizations, including universities and colleges, to develop educational programs in which the content of management disciplines would be focused on teaching entrepreneurship as a profession. What has already been implemented in the practice of the Synergy University.

Competition in the Consumer Services Market in the Context of Digitalization

The intensity of changes in the consumer services market is characterized by an increase in the number of mutually beneficial cooperation between economic agents based on the growth of transactions using mobile devices and information products. At the same time, an increase in the satisfaction of the interests of consumers and service providers is achieved by increasing the choice and intensity of electronic sales. The article presents the author’s vision of the role of the mobile application market in the field of consumer services, assesses its advantages and disadvantages. When the concept of logistics in the field of consumer services is changing, the choice of a mobile application is important for entrepreneurs, as well as building communications with consumers depending on a specific platform, applications, devices and other aspects of the digital environment. Based on a comparative and content analysis, for the first time, new forms of service logistics are highlighted, as well as the possibility of promoting services from a producer to a consumer using various types of mobile applications, which can help ensure competitive advantages in the context of business digitalization in the field of consumer services. Using the observation method, the subject of which was the PESO communication model, changes were identified in its four communication channels through the use of Internet platforms, information and digital technologies. Special transformations are recorded when using the “owner’s channel” (owned media), which is explained by the modern possibilities of digital markets. Thus, in the interaction of economic agents and consumers, sites, mobile versions of sites are used, and recently mobile applications have become the “owner’s channel”. Due to this, the possibilities of searching, ordering products, the speed of their delivery, etc. are expanding. In conclusion, we note that the competitive advantages that are formed through the use of various opportunities provided by digital markets are reflected in table 1, their list is quite extensive.

Competitive Strategies of Public Procurement Bidders

The active promotion by the Government of the Russian Federation of measures to support small and medium-sized businesses through the system of state and municipal procurement from 2022 (the obligation to purchase at least 25% of their needs and small and medium-sized businesses instead of 15% from 2014 to 2021 [1]) has led to actualization of questions about barriers to entry into the state order markets. The purpose of the study is to create a “competition map” on the basis of which an entrepreneur entering the public procurement market will be able to determine in which industry and regional markets it is more efficient to work, taking into account the current level of competition. To achieve the stated goal, the following tasks were implemented: the results of the procurement activities of all Russian regions for 2020 and 2021 were analyzed in the format of a competition matrix: the participation of suppliers from each Russian region in procurements announced in each of the regions was evaluated, the probability of winning was determined depending on the combination participant-region”, as well as “region-object of procurement”. During the study, statistical tools were used to work with average data on competition and key factors and measurements that have a correlation. The sources of information were 3,976,711 notices and their corresponding public procurement protocols from the open data of the EIS ftp server for 2020 and 2021, collected and processed by a program written in Python using the PostgreSQL 12 database. Based on the results of the research, recommendations were given to procurement participants on which regional and industry markets it is more efficient to participate in procurement, and where the maximum probability of winning is guaranteed.

Concentration and Competition in Modern Banking Sector of Serbia: Changes and Decomposition of Herfindahl – Hirschman Index

The author: Bukvić R.
Paper considers the concentration (and competition) and changes in concentration in banking sector of Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohia) in the second half of 2010s and beginning of 2020s. In the first part of work the main theoretical and methodological questions of the research of concentration and competition were presented, and after them the specific characteristics of competition in banking sector, as one of the form of competition. Author emphasizes the importance of the choice of balance variables for the calculation of concentration indices and chooses next variables: total assets, deposits, capital, operating income, and loans. In the next part using the Herfindahl – Hirschman index, one of the most popular methods, it was shown that the degree of concentration is low, although close to moderate. At the end, on the basis of very rare used method it were decomposed the changes of this concentration index into two factors: component of inequality in market shares distribution, and component of the number of banks. It was shown that impacts of these two factors are not equal and vary through the years. All the types of its varying were classified into six groups depending on types of these factors changes and its relationships. Among the six possible types of changes the type VI prevails in many cases (decrease of inequality of market shares and decrease of number of banks where the first change is greater than second). On the other side, in 2021 (I–VI) for all variables type of changes I happens (increase of inequality and decrease of number of banks). Very interesting is also the fact that in general concentration index was not increased, although the number of banks constantly decreased and component of inequality in many cases had greater impact on the changes of concentration index than the component of inequality.

Continuous Entrepreneurship Education: Formation of an Innovative Model (2021 Experience)

The article presents the results of the federal innovation project implementation “Model of an innovative system of continuous entrepreneurship education of higher education of the Russian Federation” in 2021, created in accordance with the order of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation No. 1580 dated December 25, 2020, in the Synergy University. The goal of the project is to design, create and implement an innovative system of entrepreneurship education in a higher educational institution of the Russian Federation. It also analyzes the relevance and innovative implementation of the project from the standpoint of the current state of entrepreneurship education in the Russian Federation at the bachelor’s and master’s degrees. Competencies that form the core of an entrepreneur’s professional competence are analyzed. Based on this analysis, the substantiation of the professional competency-based model of practice-oriented education is provided for the programs of lifelong entrepreneurship education. The sequence of the formation of universal, general professional and professional competencies at the levels of bachelor’s and master’s degrees in entrepreneurship programs is revealed. The described approaches formed the basis for the refinement and improvement of competency matrices. It is proved that the development of a harmonized curriculum should be based on the proposed approach to the formation of learning outcomes. The authors describe the design features of methodological content that contributes to the consistent application of practice-oriented approaches in the implementation of lifelong entrepreneurship education programs, as well as innovative techniques, technologies, entrepreneurship training, and the trajectory of individualization of training for undergraduate and graduate programs. Other issues that are considered in the article reveal the activities of the federal innovation project from the standpoint of scientific publications, the dissemination of experience in the scientific community. Based on the described results, recommendations are proposed for the further formation of an innovative system of continuous entrepreneurship education in the Russian Federation

Cross-subsidization in the Electric Power Industry: Current State and Problem-solving Vectors

The author: Vasilyev D.
As scientific community as businessmen discuss the problem of cross-subsidization in the electric power industry. This problem has long remained relevant. The main topic of economic discussions is fairness and validity of the rules for the tariff formation in the electric power industry. The different tariffs allow reducing the financial burden of some consumers and shifting it to others. The aim of the issue is to develop the main vectors of solving problems and government regulation measures. They are expected to level the negative economic effects of cross-subsidization. The purpose of the study is revealed through solving the following problems: a) to determine the socio-economic nature of cross-subsidization and regulatory problems at the current stage of development; b) to study the experience of foreign countries in cross-subsidization policies; review public policy mechanisms related to cross-subsidization. The subject of the issue is economic relations between different economic participants and their interests arising in the process of cross-subsidization policy. The results of the issue are the development of the main directions of the transformation of the state regulation of the energy complex in terms of reducing the negative effects of cross-subsidies. The scope of application of the obtained results is determined by the possibilities of developing and implementing a balanced state policy that takes into account the interests of all participants in economic processes, eliminating the creation of social tension in society that supports the growth of the well-being of the population. The following general scientific and special methods were chosen as scientific tools for conducting this study: content analysis method, system analysis method, retrospective analysis method, statistical survey methods. The information base of the study was the analytical development of the materials of the Federal Antimonopoly Service, the Federal State Statistics Service, regulatory acts of the Russian Federation governing the development of the electric power complex. The basis of the presented study was the basic definitions of cross-subsidies, methods of reducing the negative consequences of cross-subsidies, principles and approaches of state regulation of the electric power complex.

Digitalization of Business as a Factor of Increasing its Competitiveness

The author: Afonin P.
Digital transformation is the renewal of business processes using modern technologies to accelerate productivity and increase efficiency. The dynamics of the number of publications on this topic demonstrates an increase in interest in the problem, so from one article indexed in the Scopus database in 2013, their number in 2021 increased to 676 papers. At the same time, the dependence of a company’s competitiveness on the digital transformation of business the assessment remains a niche in the research field, some scientists have only paid attention to the analysis of the digital competitiveness of companies. In this regard, we believe that our research may arouse the interest of the scientific community. The purpose of the article is to prove the existence of a relationship between the level of competitiveness of a business and the degree of its digital transformation, as well as to identify ways to stimulate the business digital transformation. Based on the correlation analysis, the author studied the relationship between the levels of digital and global competitiveness of the countries of the world, and found out the significant influence of not only technological, but also institutional factors on global competitiveness. Using the example of 63 countries studied, using regression analysis, the decisive factors of digital competitiveness were identified: factors of scientific productivity, quality of technological infrastructure, business flexibility and integration of IT into social and business processes. The mechanism of increasing business flexibility in three areas of improvement, strategic, organizational and operational, is defined. Strategic business flexibility is crucial for creating a commercially viable business, organizational flexibility is aimed at optimizing business processes in order to accelerate business adaptation to new market challenges, operational flexibility implies the ability to quickly and efficiently achieve measurable results. The author substantiates that top managers can take advantage by turning to information technologies as the main tool for achieving business flexibility, and suggests an algorithm for ensuring business flexibility by modernizing the IT architecture.

Formation of a Competitive Environment in the Market of Electronic Payment Systems

The relevance of the study of the formation of a competitive environment in the payment systems market is due to the current oligopoly of foreign payment systems. The everyday economic life of society is directly relate to the use of money and is determine by the need to consider the issues of using payment systems on the territory of the Russian Federation as a whole and assess the level and problems of their development during the period of digital transformation. The purpose of the study is to explore the Russian market of payment systems that can compete with foreign counterparts. The main task is to study the payment systems used in the Russian market and develop recommendations for promoting the national payment system MIR, as an alternative payment system Visa and Masterсard. In the course of the study, general scientific methods (analysis and synthesis, comparison) and special methods (statistical and economic analysis) were used. The article analyzed business models of electronic payment systems and the structure of cash flows for cashless payments. Three options for the implementation of transactions are considered: with foreign Visa and Masterсard, the Russian MIR card and using the Fast payment system (FPS). The advantages and disadvantages of the MIR payment card in comparison with Visa and Masterсard were analyzed. The significance of national digital currencies and their relationship with payment systems were investigated. As the results of the study, methods of struggle of domestic marketplaces with the oligopoly of foreign payment systems were identified. Based on the conducted competitive analysis of the Russian MIR card, measures were proposed to improve the development of Russian payment systems as a whole in order to popularize them among economic agents of the Russian Federation.