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“Modern competition" is the unique academic interdisciplinary journal which is devoted completely to the questions of competition and business. The journal covers theoretical and practical aspects of competition, its strategies and tactics, competitiveness of business, competition regulation in economics.


A new approach to the assessment of the level of competition

The article is devoted to the presentation of a new approach to assessing the level of competition. It is because of measurement is not subjected to the concentration of market power and the nature of the distribution of market power in the market. At the heart of the new competition, the level meter is cal-mathematical model of Gauss, based on which the normal distribution random magnitude was described in one hundred-mathematical statistics. For practical use of the new approach to assessing the level of competition in the markets of the model generated by two parameters, which make economic sense and practical applicability are discussed in the article.

Antitrust Law Enforcement in Aftermarkets: for Product Boundaries Estimates to Competition Advocacy

The author: Shastitko A.
This article brings out and summarizes approaches to definition of market product boundaries for the purpose of antitrust law enforcement in accordance with the relationship between the main and derivative products. Following factors are discussed: price of the derivate product in absolute terms and in comparison with the main product price; probability of the derivative product sale to consumer under period of the main product use; the main product buyers structure; information on durables post-sale service conditions availability. It is shown applicability of transaction cost economics approach to discuss issues relating antitrust and contracting using such transaction features as bounded rationality, opportunistic behavior and assets specificity. The reasons to mitigate the mode of antitrust enforcement in aftermarkets are exposed: research and development expenditures, reputation effects for the main product producer who controls aftermarket, increasing return to scale in aftermarket.,The article provides the assessment of the results of Russian antimonopoly policy and competition advocacy in related markets characterized by «main product-derivative product» relationship. Special attention is devoted to compliance practices of manufacturers and dealers in auto industry from the perspective of competition support in aftermarkets. The article offers policy implications for the antitrust law enforcement in aftermarkets in Russia.

Comparison of two methods to determine boundaries of product markets: hypothetical monopolist test and method of pairwise comparison

The author: Brodskij V.

Two methods of determining the product type boundaries of product markets are compared: hypothetical monopolist test (SSNIP) and method of pairwise comparison. Advantages of pairwise comparisons method as opposed to SSNIP are highlighted.

Competition in sports leagues: theoretical approaches

The author: Andreeva K.
The article is aimed at overviewing theoretical researches on the analysis of competition in sports leagues. Supporters are treated as consumers in the market of sports services who values the unpredictability of results. The article contains a number of factors that influence the level of unpredictability, including level of talent in leagues, number of clubs capable to be on top places, and others. The first part of the article includes statistics to prove the fact of increasing competition between clubs of the major European leagues: more and more clubs compete with each other for prizes and European cup zone. There is a number of indicators to evaluate the level of competitiveness in sports leagues. Further the article contains classification of sports leagues and reasons of appearing rules that restrict competition, as well as a list of the main factors that cause market monopolization. There is also a review of several articles with models of competitive balance in sport. In the last part of the article issues for further applied researches on the topic of sport competition are listed on the basis of the results of theoretical review of sports economists in Europe and the United States.

Competition policy in transition economies: collusion problem in CEE

The author: Makarov A.
This article focuses on the development of antitrust policy in transition economies in the context of preventing explicit and tacit collusion. Experience of CEE countries (Bulgaria, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Czech Republic, Estonia) in the creation of anti- trust system was analyzed, including both legislation and enforcement practice. The analysis takes into account such institutional problems as: classification problems (tacit vs explicit collusion, ver- tical vs horizontal agreements), flexibility of prohibitions («per se» vs «rule of reason»), design of sanctions, private enforcement challenge, leniency program mechanisms, the role of antitrust authorities, especially in criminal investigation issues etc.

Competitive status of market participants

The author: Rubin Y.
The author offers definition of the competitive status of a market participant, discloses notion of the competitive environment and competitive forces. The author identifies the competitive status of company as companies role in the innovative transformation of the market environment: innovator, conformist, exploiter, niche actor. 
The author consistently reveals the peculiarities of firms in competitive status as a leader, challenger for the leadership, the middle peasants (the representative of the crowd), and the outsider. Also author identifies the main features of the paired competitive dispositions of firms with different competitive status. 
Paper describes some tactical model, implemented by leader against challengers. The author reveals content of the concept of «burden of leadership» and formulates «commandments» of the leader and the challengers for the leadership. 
The paper reveals the definition of the competitive status of market participants by comparison competition in business and competition in nature (by A. Yudanov).The article also describes the competitive status of the debutant, debutante types and formulates 10 rules of successful debut.

Defining the boundaries of product markets by pairwise comparisons

The author: Brodskij V.
Defining the boundaries of product markets by pairwise comparisons We offer a completely new approach to the design of product and geographical boundaries of product markets, which takes into account the organizational and informational aspects of antimonopoly regulation. We show a basic ambiguity of the term «product boundaries of the market». Reference to different interpretations of the concept discussed various algorithms for design (calculation) of the product market boundaries. We proposed a scheme of collecting and processing information about the boundaries of the market, which is the object of the antitrust investigation.

Development of market institutions and rules of competition in Russian economy

The author: Kurnysheva I.
Article describes the package of basic economic, political, legal and social rules — forming institutional environment of the market — thereupon the government market and antimonopoly policy is conducted.