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“Modern competition" is the unique academic interdisciplinary journal which is devoted completely to the questions of competition and business. The journal covers theoretical and practical aspects of competition, its strategies and tactics, competitiveness of business, competition regulation in economics.


Bachelor degree university program: common context of learning entrepreneurship courses

The article is devoted to the internal context dependence of the training courses studied under the entrepreneurship program in the bachelor’s degree. Unlike other approaches, the authors extend the context dependence to any training courses included in the training program. Approaches to the study of the management cycle of training courses by future entrepreneurs are analyzed. Using the example of structuring the content of the training course “Human Resource Management”, it is shown how the training program should be oriented to form the general professional competencies necessary for graduates to have a successful career in entrepreneurship. The article has practical significance, since the developed approach to teaching disciplines was successfully used in real business in competitive conditions, as well as theoretical significance, due to the contribution of the conclusions obtained in the article to the development of scientific ideas about the place of entrepreneurship in the educational process and the connection with the taught disciplines of the management cycle with the training of future entrepreneurs. The use of this article can also help educational organizations, including universities and colleges, to develop educational programs in which the content of management disciplines would be focused on teaching entrepreneurship as a profession. What has already been implemented in the practice of the Synergy University.

Concentration and Competition in Modern Banking Sector of Serbia: Changes and Decomposition of Herfindahl – Hirschman Index

The author: Bukvić R.
Paper considers the concentration (and competition) and changes in concentration in banking sector of Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohia) in the second half of 2010s and beginning of 2020s. In the first part of work the main theoretical and methodological questions of the research of concentration and competition were presented, and after them the specific characteristics of competition in banking sector, as one of the form of competition. Author emphasizes the importance of the choice of balance variables for the calculation of concentration indices and chooses next variables: total assets, deposits, capital, operating income, and loans. In the next part using the Herfindahl – Hirschman index, one of the most popular methods, it was shown that the degree of concentration is low, although close to moderate. At the end, on the basis of very rare used method it were decomposed the changes of this concentration index into two factors: component of inequality in market shares distribution, and component of the number of banks. It was shown that impacts of these two factors are not equal and vary through the years. All the types of its varying were classified into six groups depending on types of these factors changes and its relationships. Among the six possible types of changes the type VI prevails in many cases (decrease of inequality of market shares and decrease of number of banks where the first change is greater than second). On the other side, in 2021 (I–VI) for all variables type of changes I happens (increase of inequality and decrease of number of banks). Very interesting is also the fact that in general concentration index was not increased, although the number of banks constantly decreased and component of inequality in many cases had greater impact on the changes of concentration index than the component of inequality.

Continuous Entrepreneurship Education: Formation of an Innovative Model (2021 Experience)

The article presents the results of the federal innovation project implementation “Model of an innovative system of continuous entrepreneurship education of higher education of the Russian Federation” in 2021, created in accordance with the order of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation No. 1580 dated December 25, 2020, in the Synergy University. The goal of the project is to design, create and implement an innovative system of entrepreneurship education in a higher educational institution of the Russian Federation. It also analyzes the relevance and innovative implementation of the project from the standpoint of the current state of entrepreneurship education in the Russian Federation at the bachelor’s and master’s degrees. Competencies that form the core of an entrepreneur’s professional competence are analyzed. Based on this analysis, the substantiation of the professional competency-based model of practice-oriented education is provided for the programs of lifelong entrepreneurship education. The sequence of the formation of universal, general professional and professional competencies at the levels of bachelor’s and master’s degrees in entrepreneurship programs is revealed. The described approaches formed the basis for the refinement and improvement of competency matrices. It is proved that the development of a harmonized curriculum should be based on the proposed approach to the formation of learning outcomes. The authors describe the design features of methodological content that contributes to the consistent application of practice-oriented approaches in the implementation of lifelong entrepreneurship education programs, as well as innovative techniques, technologies, entrepreneurship training, and the trajectory of individualization of training for undergraduate and graduate programs. Other issues that are considered in the article reveal the activities of the federal innovation project from the standpoint of scientific publications, the dissemination of experience in the scientific community. Based on the described results, recommendations are proposed for the further formation of an innovative system of continuous entrepreneurship education in the Russian Federation

Cross-subsidization in the Electric Power Industry: Current State and Problem-solving Vectors

The author: Vasilyev D.
As scientific community as businessmen discuss the problem of cross-subsidization in the electric power industry. This problem has long remained relevant. The main topic of economic discussions is fairness and validity of the rules for the tariff formation in the electric power industry. The different tariffs allow reducing the financial burden of some consumers and shifting it to others. The aim of the issue is to develop the main vectors of solving problems and government regulation measures. They are expected to level the negative economic effects of cross-subsidization. The purpose of the study is revealed through solving the following problems: a) to determine the socio-economic nature of cross-subsidization and regulatory problems at the current stage of development; b) to study the experience of foreign countries in cross-subsidization policies; review public policy mechanisms related to cross-subsidization. The subject of the issue is economic relations between different economic participants and their interests arising in the process of cross-subsidization policy. The results of the issue are the development of the main directions of the transformation of the state regulation of the energy complex in terms of reducing the negative effects of cross-subsidies. The scope of application of the obtained results is determined by the possibilities of developing and implementing a balanced state policy that takes into account the interests of all participants in economic processes, eliminating the creation of social tension in society that supports the growth of the well-being of the population. The following general scientific and special methods were chosen as scientific tools for conducting this study: content analysis method, system analysis method, retrospective analysis method, statistical survey methods. The information base of the study was the analytical development of the materials of the Federal Antimonopoly Service, the Federal State Statistics Service, regulatory acts of the Russian Federation governing the development of the electric power complex. The basis of the presented study was the basic definitions of cross-subsidies, methods of reducing the negative consequences of cross-subsidies, principles and approaches of state regulation of the electric power complex.

Formation of a Competitive Environment in the Market of Electronic Payment Systems

The relevance of the study of the formation of a competitive environment in the payment systems market is due to the current oligopoly of foreign payment systems. The everyday economic life of society is directly relate to the use of money and is determine by the need to consider the issues of using payment systems on the territory of the Russian Federation as a whole and assess the level and problems of their development during the period of digital transformation. The purpose of the study is to explore the Russian market of payment systems that can compete with foreign counterparts. The main task is to study the payment systems used in the Russian market and develop recommendations for promoting the national payment system MIR, as an alternative payment system Visa and Masterсard. In the course of the study, general scientific methods (analysis and synthesis, comparison) and special methods (statistical and economic analysis) were used. The article analyzed business models of electronic payment systems and the structure of cash flows for cashless payments. Three options for the implementation of transactions are considered: with foreign Visa and Masterсard, the Russian MIR card and using the Fast payment system (FPS). The advantages and disadvantages of the MIR payment card in comparison with Visa and Masterсard were analyzed. The significance of national digital currencies and their relationship with payment systems were investigated. As the results of the study, methods of struggle of domestic marketplaces with the oligopoly of foreign payment systems were identified. Based on the conducted competitive analysis of the Russian MIR card, measures were proposed to improve the development of Russian payment systems as a whole in order to popularize them among economic agents of the Russian Federation.

Implementation of a Discount Policy the Shortage B2B Markets: a Marketing Ploy or Price Discrimination?

Modern research of B2B markets focuses on various aspects of information and economic interaction of market participants, but most often the features of marketing strategies in the field of promoting goods / services and building marketing communications are analyzed in order to increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. The issues of effective pricing and the implementation of discount policy as a tool to stimulate sales in B2B markets have not been practically studied. The variability in the application of seller pricing policy instruments in B2B markets under conditions of a limited number of buyers can have a significant impact on the intensity of competition in the market and, as a consequence, lead to a change in the market structure, its transformation and loss of balance. Therefore, the pricing system in non-equilibrium, in particular, shortage markets, in which the inefficient use of discount mechanisms by sellers can take the form of price discrimination of buyers due to the increased market power of the seller, is of considerable scientific and practical interest. This article, being a continuation of the discourse started by the authors on price discrimination in scarce markets, published in No. 3 of the journal Modern Competition, and is devoted to the study of the feasibility of using discounts in equilibrium and scarce B2B markets. At the end of the series of articles on price discrimination in scarce markets [1], the authors intend to publish a third article, which will examine the case of a shortage solid-rolled wheel market in Russia in 2018-2019 from the standpoint of assessing the feasibility of preserving discount programs for certain categories of buyers in the specified oligopolistic B2B market.

Individual Abuse of Collective Dominance in Cellular Communications: Problems of Identification

Recently, discussions about the validity of the Russian practice of establishing the facts of individual abuse of collective dominance have been escalating: many experts point to a contradiction between the meaning of collective dominance, in which a small number of companies have a joint dominant position, in connection with each other, and the possibility of an individual company to abuse this position. The purpose of the article is to assess the correctness of this approach in the context of recent antitrust cases in the cellular communications market – in particular, two cases against the mobile operator “Tele2”. In the article, the applied practice is assessed in relation to the currently known results in the field of economic theory, as well as international best practices in the application of the concept of collective dominance. The findings indicate that the conclusion of the FAS Russia on the presence of the dominant position of Tele2 as part of collective dominance and the possibility of the company to exercise its market power does not correspond to either foreign practice or industrial organization theory. The source of error in the qualification of behavior is largely due to the focus of the antimonopoly authority on quantitative criteria of collective dominance to the detriment of the analysis of qualitative criteria and behavior. This case illustrates a typical tendency for such cases not to investigate the behavior of other collectively dominant market participants in relation to the behavior of the company accused of individual abuse, as well as not to investigate consumer behavior, and, in particular, their real possibilities to switch and switching actions. The article was written on the basis of the RANEPA state assignment research programme.

On normative fixation of rector's competence in management of the competitiveness of Russian universities

The author: Vasilev A.
The article analyzes the Russian educational and labor legislation, as well as qualification guides and professional standards, in order to determine the regulatory and legal definition of the competence of the heads of Russian universities in managing the competitiveness of educational organizations. The author relies on official sources describing and qualifying the rector’s professional activities in university management in order to identify the requirements for professional managerial competencies that make up the core of the professional leadership of an educational organization, which directly ensure the competitiveness of the university. The author quotes the main legislative provisions establishing the professional status of the rector of a university – the head of a Russian university. As a result of the analysis of legal norms and norms of qualification reference books and professional standards, the author comes to the conclusion that the strategically important competences of higher and secondary leaders of educational organizations to ensure the competitiveness of higher education organizations are currently not represented in the Russian Federation either in qualification reference books or in professional standards. Neither in the state educational standards, nor in the regulatory legal acts of labor and educational legislation. The article concludes with the author’s suggestions and recommendations on the normative reflection in the competences of the heads of Russian universities of the competence in managing the competitiveness of an educational organization.