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“Modern competition" is the unique academic interdisciplinary journal which is devoted completely to the questions of competition and business. The journal covers theoretical and practical aspects of competition, its strategies and tactics, competitiveness of business, competition regulation in economics.

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Bachelor degree university program: common context of learning entrepreneurship courses

The article is devoted to the internal context dependence of the training courses studied under the entrepreneurship program in the bachelor’s degree. Unlike other approaches, the authors extend the context dependence to any training courses included in the training program. Approaches to the study of the management cycle of training courses by future entrepreneurs are analyzed. Using the example of structuring the content of the training course “Human Resource Management”, it is shown how the training program should be oriented to form the general professional competencies necessary for graduates to have a successful career in entrepreneurship. The article has practical significance, since the developed approach to teaching disciplines was successfully used in real business in competitive conditions, as well as theoretical significance, due to the contribution of the conclusions obtained in the article to the development of scientific ideas about the place of entrepreneurship in the educational process and the connection with the taught disciplines of the management cycle with the training of future entrepreneurs. The use of this article can also help educational organizations, including universities and colleges, to develop educational programs in which the content of management disciplines would be focused on teaching entrepreneurship as a profession. What has already been implemented in the practice of the Synergy University.

Continuous Entrepreneurship Education: Formation of an Innovative Model (2021 Experience)

The article presents the results of the federal innovation project implementation “Model of an innovative system of continuous entrepreneurship education of higher education of the Russian Federation” in 2021, created in accordance with the order of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation No. 1580 dated December 25, 2020, in the Synergy University. The goal of the project is to design, create and implement an innovative system of entrepreneurship education in a higher educational institution of the Russian Federation. It also analyzes the relevance and innovative implementation of the project from the standpoint of the current state of entrepreneurship education in the Russian Federation at the bachelor’s and master’s degrees. Competencies that form the core of an entrepreneur’s professional competence are analyzed. Based on this analysis, the substantiation of the professional competency-based model of practice-oriented education is provided for the programs of lifelong entrepreneurship education. The sequence of the formation of universal, general professional and professional competencies at the levels of bachelor’s and master’s degrees in entrepreneurship programs is revealed. The described approaches formed the basis for the refinement and improvement of competency matrices. It is proved that the development of a harmonized curriculum should be based on the proposed approach to the formation of learning outcomes. The authors describe the design features of methodological content that contributes to the consistent application of practice-oriented approaches in the implementation of lifelong entrepreneurship education programs, as well as innovative techniques, technologies, entrepreneurship training, and the trajectory of individualization of training for undergraduate and graduate programs. Other issues that are considered in the article reveal the activities of the federal innovation project from the standpoint of scientific publications, the dissemination of experience in the scientific community. Based on the described results, recommendations are proposed for the further formation of an innovative system of continuous entrepreneurship education in the Russian Federation

Cross-subsidization in the Electric Power Industry: Current State and Problem-solving Vectors

The author: Vasilyev D.
As scientific community as businessmen discuss the problem of cross-subsidization in the electric power industry. This problem has long remained relevant. The main topic of economic discussions is fairness and validity of the rules for the tariff formation in the electric power industry. The different tariffs allow reducing the financial burden of some consumers and shifting it to others. The aim of the issue is to develop the main vectors of solving problems and government regulation measures. They are expected to level the negative economic effects of cross-subsidization. The purpose of the study is revealed through solving the following problems: a) to determine the socio-economic nature of cross-subsidization and regulatory problems at the current stage of development; b) to study the experience of foreign countries in cross-subsidization policies; review public policy mechanisms related to cross-subsidization. The subject of the issue is economic relations between different economic participants and their interests arising in the process of cross-subsidization policy. The results of the issue are the development of the main directions of the transformation of the state regulation of the energy complex in terms of reducing the negative effects of cross-subsidies. The scope of application of the obtained results is determined by the possibilities of developing and implementing a balanced state policy that takes into account the interests of all participants in economic processes, eliminating the creation of social tension in society that supports the growth of the well-being of the population. The following general scientific and special methods were chosen as scientific tools for conducting this study: content analysis method, system analysis method, retrospective analysis method, statistical survey methods. The information base of the study was the analytical development of the materials of the Federal Antimonopoly Service, the Federal State Statistics Service, regulatory acts of the Russian Federation governing the development of the electric power complex. The basis of the presented study was the basic definitions of cross-subsidies, methods of reducing the negative consequences of cross-subsidies, principles and approaches of state regulation of the electric power complex.

Implementation of a Discount Policy the Shortage B2B Markets: a Marketing Ploy or Price Discrimination?

Modern research of B2B markets focuses on various aspects of information and economic interaction of market participants, but most often the features of marketing strategies in the field of promoting goods / services and building marketing communications are analyzed in order to increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. The issues of effective pricing and the implementation of discount policy as a tool to stimulate sales in B2B markets have not been practically studied. The variability in the application of seller pricing policy instruments in B2B markets under conditions of a limited number of buyers can have a significant impact on the intensity of competition in the market and, as a consequence, lead to a change in the market structure, its transformation and loss of balance. Therefore, the pricing system in non-equilibrium, in particular, shortage markets, in which the inefficient use of discount mechanisms by sellers can take the form of price discrimination of buyers due to the increased market power of the seller, is of considerable scientific and practical interest. This article, being a continuation of the discourse started by the authors on price discrimination in scarce markets, published in No. 3 of the journal Modern Competition, and is devoted to the study of the feasibility of using discounts in equilibrium and scarce B2B markets. At the end of the series of articles on price discrimination in scarce markets [1], the authors intend to publish a third article, which will examine the case of a shortage solid-rolled wheel market in Russia in 2018-2019 from the standpoint of assessing the feasibility of preserving discount programs for certain categories of buyers in the specified oligopolistic B2B market.

Individual Abuse of Collective Dominance in Cellular Communications: Problems of Identification

Recently, discussions about the validity of the Russian practice of establishing the facts of individual abuse of collective dominance have been escalating: many experts point to a contradiction between the meaning of collective dominance, in which a small number of companies have a joint dominant position, in connection with each other, and the possibility of an individual company to abuse this position. The purpose of the article is to assess the correctness of this approach in the context of recent antitrust cases in the cellular communications market – in particular, two cases against the mobile operator “Tele2”. In the article, the applied practice is assessed in relation to the currently known results in the field of economic theory, as well as international best practices in the application of the concept of collective dominance. The findings indicate that the conclusion of the FAS Russia on the presence of the dominant position of Tele2 as part of collective dominance and the possibility of the company to exercise its market power does not correspond to either foreign practice or industrial organization theory. The source of error in the qualification of behavior is largely due to the focus of the antimonopoly authority on quantitative criteria of collective dominance to the detriment of the analysis of qualitative criteria and behavior. This case illustrates a typical tendency for such cases not to investigate the behavior of other collectively dominant market participants in relation to the behavior of the company accused of individual abuse, as well as not to investigate consumer behavior, and, in particular, their real possibilities to switch and switching actions. The article was written on the basis of the RANEPA state assignment research programme.

On normative fixation of rector's competence in management of the competitiveness of Russian universities

The author: Vasilev A.
The article analyzes the Russian educational and labor legislation, as well as qualification guides and professional standards, in order to determine the regulatory and legal definition of the competence of the heads of Russian universities in managing the competitiveness of educational organizations. The author relies on official sources describing and qualifying the rector’s professional activities in university management in order to identify the requirements for professional managerial competencies that make up the core of the professional leadership of an educational organization, which directly ensure the competitiveness of the university. The author quotes the main legislative provisions establishing the professional status of the rector of a university – the head of a Russian university. As a result of the analysis of legal norms and norms of qualification reference books and professional standards, the author comes to the conclusion that the strategically important competences of higher and secondary leaders of educational organizations to ensure the competitiveness of higher education organizations are currently not represented in the Russian Federation either in qualification reference books or in professional standards. Neither in the state educational standards, nor in the regulatory legal acts of labor and educational legislation. The article concludes with the author’s suggestions and recommendations on the normative reflection in the competences of the heads of Russian universities of the competence in managing the competitiveness of an educational organization.

Quality of Education as a Factor of University Competitiveness

The author: Drondin A.
The strategic orientation of any modern educational organization is to achieve competitive advantages in the market of educational services. The competitiveness of the university is directly dependent on the quality of its educational services. Evaluation of the quality of education, in turn, goes to such concepts as the rating of the university and its accreditation. Discussion of this area of higher education is actively conducted in the academic community, but its research, especially in the realities of the digital economy, is insufficient, which makes this publication relevant. The purpose of the study is to identify the actual features of achieving high competitiveness in the conditions of digital transformation by a domestic university. To do this, it is necessary to analyze the existing experience of Russian higher education in terms of responding to the challenges of digital transformation and develop recommendations for achieving high quality education in modern conditions. The research methodology is based on the theoretical foundations of professional education and the competitiveness of Russian universities. The article analyzes the domestic and international experience in assessing the quality of education, while proving that the main criterion for assessing the competitiveness of a university is the quality of learning outcomes. Methods of comparative analysis, observation and generalization are used. The study proves that modern Russian higher education does not always adequately respond to the challenges and opportunities of digital transformation. A number of systemic problems hindering the achievement of high quality of modern higher education are identified. The necessity of combining the introduction of innovative technologies of the educational process with the preservation of the advantages of traditional education is confirmed. Promising directions of constructive interaction of the university with the most important stakeholders of higher education – employers are proposed.

The Price Discrimination on the Shortage Markets: Theoretical Analysis

Antitrust law includes a number of evaluation norms in system of commodity market analysis and proofs of anti-competitive behavior, which provide for using wide range of economics and marketing methods. The widest field of discussing embedded in definition “price discrimination”. Specific research interest presents the making recommendations of regulation of shortage markets with unfounded differences in prices. This question we propose to consider in two articles: in first article we make theoretical analysis of price discrimination in situation of shortage markets, in second article (will be published in no. 4) we analyze marketing aspects and system of sales stimulation, which the seller accomplish on the shortage markets. In the focus of this research is price discrimination as a market mechanism and shortage markets as a market anomaly. The shortage markets in contrast of shortage on the market occurs not for reason that price is below the equilibrium level. The main reason of genesis of shortage markets is speculative demand on the markets and/or difficulties in producing goods and services. These difficulties often set by outside shocks. Price discrimination undergoing of effect of long-run shortage on markets transforming in phenomenon, which damages of consumer wealth and entrepreneurs benefits. In addition, this type of price discrimination decrease the social welfare too. The risks of price discrimination in the case of shortage markets needed new decisions and methods of regulation by state. However now we do not see some consensus in the issue of principles and instruments of state regulation of shortage markets. In the article we try to approbate some scientific results. These results are the hybrid definition of price discrimination; the legislative definitions of price discrimination as a acts which limiting competition; the criteria of functioning of shortage markets; proofs of transforming markets through the impact of long-run shortage; the difference between the case of shortage markets and the case of shortage on the markets in the classical demand-supply model; costs of price discrimination on the shortage markets; perspective antitrust regulation of price discrimination on the shortage markets.