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“Modern competition" is the unique academic interdisciplinary journal which is devoted completely to the questions of competition and business. The journal covers theoretical and practical aspects of competition, its strategies and tactics, competitiveness of business, competition regulation in economics.

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Bachelor degree university program: common context of learning entrepreneurship courses

The article is devoted to the internal context dependence of the training courses studied under the entrepreneurship program in the bachelor’s degree. Unlike other approaches, the authors extend the context dependence to any training courses included in the training program. Approaches to the study of the management cycle of training courses by future entrepreneurs are analyzed. Using the example of structuring the content of the training course “Human Resource Management”, it is shown how the training program should be oriented to form the general professional competencies necessary for graduates to have a successful career in entrepreneurship. The article has practical significance, since the developed approach to teaching disciplines was successfully used in real business in competitive conditions, as well as theoretical significance, due to the contribution of the conclusions obtained in the article to the development of scientific ideas about the place of entrepreneurship in the educational process and the connection with the taught disciplines of the management cycle with the training of future entrepreneurs. The use of this article can also help educational organizations, including universities and colleges, to develop educational programs in which the content of management disciplines would be focused on teaching entrepreneurship as a profession. What has already been implemented in the practice of the Synergy University.

Competitive Organizational Competences of the University

The author: Vasilev A.
The purpose of this article is to reveal the author’s definition of competitive organizational competencies and to offer a tool for its practical perception – a matrix of perception of competitive competencies. For this, the article reveals the terminological difference between competence and competence and confirms the existence of such a difference in relation to not only the individual, but also the university. With regard to the organization, it is also possible to distinguish the knowledge-resource-expert aspect of the organization’s activities and the functional-active aspect. The organization develops collective, distributed, internal abilities (organizational competence) to perform actions that constitute a specific, specific direction of activity (organizational competence). The work describes a matrix of perception of competitive competencies, specially developed by the author, and proposes to use it as an analytical tool for university leaders. The properties of competence, which, on the one hand, reflect its activity content (i.e., the connection with a specific professional activity), and, on the other hand, have a competitive value and make sense in the context of competitive confrontation, are of priority importance. The matrix reflects the degree of proximity of the competence to the core of the business and the degree of uniqueness and specificity of the competence. The matrix of perception of competitive competencies proposed by the author makes it possible to clearly clarify the key, competitive, sectoral, auxiliary (additional), unique competencies of the university. When defining competitive organizational competence, the author discloses two methodological ways to combine competitive and competence-based approaches: to understand competence as a means or as a goal of competition. The author defines competitive organizational competence as a unique organizational ability that cannot be copied by competitors, which allows it to withstand competition at a high level of competitiveness. In this understanding, competitive competencies are not the goal of competition, but a means of competition, an instrument of competition.

Cross-subsidization in the Electric Power Industry: Current State and Problem-solving Vectors

The author: Vasilyev D.
As scientific community as businessmen discuss the problem of cross-subsidization in the electric power industry. This problem has long remained relevant. The main topic of economic discussions is fairness and validity of the rules for the tariff formation in the electric power industry. The different tariffs allow reducing the financial burden of some consumers and shifting it to others. The aim of the issue is to develop the main vectors of solving problems and government regulation measures. They are expected to level the negative economic effects of cross-subsidization. The purpose of the study is revealed through solving the following problems: a) to determine the socio-economic nature of cross-subsidization and regulatory problems at the current stage of development; b) to study the experience of foreign countries in cross-subsidization policies; review public policy mechanisms related to cross-subsidization. The subject of the issue is economic relations between different economic participants and their interests arising in the process of cross-subsidization policy. The results of the issue are the development of the main directions of the transformation of the state regulation of the energy complex in terms of reducing the negative effects of cross-subsidies. The scope of application of the obtained results is determined by the possibilities of developing and implementing a balanced state policy that takes into account the interests of all participants in economic processes, eliminating the creation of social tension in society that supports the growth of the well-being of the population. The following general scientific and special methods were chosen as scientific tools for conducting this study: content analysis method, system analysis method, retrospective analysis method, statistical survey methods. The information base of the study was the analytical development of the materials of the Federal Antimonopoly Service, the Federal State Statistics Service, regulatory acts of the Russian Federation governing the development of the electric power complex. The basis of the presented study was the basic definitions of cross-subsidies, methods of reducing the negative consequences of cross-subsidies, principles and approaches of state regulation of the electric power complex.

Individual Abuse of Collective Dominance in Cellular Communications: Problems of Identification

Recently, discussions about the validity of the Russian practice of establishing the facts of individual abuse of collective dominance have been escalating: many experts point to a contradiction between the meaning of collective dominance, in which a small number of companies have a joint dominant position, in connection with each other, and the possibility of an individual company to abuse this position. The purpose of the article is to assess the correctness of this approach in the context of recent antitrust cases in the cellular communications market – in particular, two cases against the mobile operator “Tele2”. In the article, the applied practice is assessed in relation to the currently known results in the field of economic theory, as well as international best practices in the application of the concept of collective dominance. The findings indicate that the conclusion of the FAS Russia on the presence of the dominant position of Tele2 as part of collective dominance and the possibility of the company to exercise its market power does not correspond to either foreign practice or industrial organization theory. The source of error in the qualification of behavior is largely due to the focus of the antimonopoly authority on quantitative criteria of collective dominance to the detriment of the analysis of qualitative criteria and behavior. This case illustrates a typical tendency for such cases not to investigate the behavior of other collectively dominant market participants in relation to the behavior of the company accused of individual abuse, as well as not to investigate consumer behavior, and, in particular, their real possibilities to switch and switching actions. The article was written on the basis of the RANEPA state assignment research programme.

On normative fixation of rector's competence in management of the competitiveness of Russian universities

The author: Vasilev A.
The article analyzes the Russian educational and labor legislation, as well as qualification guides and professional standards, in order to determine the regulatory and legal definition of the competence of the heads of Russian universities in managing the competitiveness of educational organizations. The author relies on official sources describing and qualifying the rector’s professional activities in university management in order to identify the requirements for professional managerial competencies that make up the core of the professional leadership of an educational organization, which directly ensure the competitiveness of the university. The author quotes the main legislative provisions establishing the professional status of the rector of a university – the head of a Russian university. As a result of the analysis of legal norms and norms of qualification reference books and professional standards, the author comes to the conclusion that the strategically important competences of higher and secondary leaders of educational organizations to ensure the competitiveness of higher education organizations are currently not represented in the Russian Federation either in qualification reference books or in professional standards. Neither in the state educational standards, nor in the regulatory legal acts of labor and educational legislation. The article concludes with the author’s suggestions and recommendations on the normative reflection in the competences of the heads of Russian universities of the competence in managing the competitiveness of an educational organization.

The Price Discrimination on the Shortage Markets: Theoretical Analysis

Antitrust law includes a number of evaluation norms in system of commodity market analysis and proofs of anti-competitive behavior, which provide for using wide range of economics and marketing methods. The widest field of discussing embedded in definition “price discrimination”. Specific research interest presents the making recommendations of regulation of shortage markets with unfounded differences in prices. This question we propose to consider in two articles: in first article we make theoretical analysis of price discrimination in situation of shortage markets, in second article (will be published in no. 4) we analyze marketing aspects and system of sales stimulation, which the seller accomplish on the shortage markets. In the focus of this research is price discrimination as a market mechanism and shortage markets as a market anomaly. The shortage markets in contrast of shortage on the market occurs not for reason that price is below the equilibrium level. The main reason of genesis of shortage markets is speculative demand on the markets and/or difficulties in producing goods and services. These difficulties often set by outside shocks. Price discrimination undergoing of effect of long-run shortage on markets transforming in phenomenon, which damages of consumer wealth and entrepreneurs benefits. In addition, this type of price discrimination decrease the social welfare too. The risks of price discrimination in the case of shortage markets needed new decisions and methods of regulation by state. However now we do not see some consensus in the issue of principles and instruments of state regulation of shortage markets. In the article we try to approbate some scientific results. These results are the hybrid definition of price discrimination; the legislative definitions of price discrimination as a acts which limiting competition; the criteria of functioning of shortage markets; proofs of transforming markets through the impact of long-run shortage; the difference between the case of shortage markets and the case of shortage on the markets in the classical demand-supply model; costs of price discrimination on the shortage markets; perspective antitrust regulation of price discrimination on the shortage markets.

The techno-startup course of the School of entrepreneurship as an introduction to innovation

The modern economy is in dire need of innovators who can design the technological image of the future. The best way to train future specialists in technonatural recognized as a project-based approach, augmented business education. But research has shown that in Russia, project activity in its existing forms does not fulfill its main functions: it does not give students the experience of creating innovations, does not develop critical thinking, does not form an interest in creating new products or services, their implementation and diffusion. The aim of the research was to search for approaches, methods and forms of training that will form students’ desire to choose a career in the field of technology innovation or high-tech entrepreneurship, give them the experience and knowledge necessary for the organization of a technology startup. In order to test the found pedagogical solutions, the techno-startup course of the school of entrepreneurship as an introduction to innovation. The study showed that the introduction of psychological training (teaching students the techniques of generating and testing ideas, empathy, conducting in-depth interviews, team building, planning, etc.), gamification of all types of classes, the development of course tasks as a tool for the development of design- and business thinking of students, monitoring the development of students ‘ competencies and components of their thinking with the help of specially prepared trackers, building the stages of the educational project in accordance with the stages of a real technology startup (the introduction of empathy stages, MVP, attracting external funding), allowed us to achieve the goal of the study.

Competitive policy in the strategic planning system

The author: Kurnysheva I.
The article considers the potential of linking the methodology and tools of competition policy with the main mechanisms of strategic management planning aimed at achieving the priority goals of the state, including the processes of goal setting, forecasting and planning the socio-economic development of the Russian Federation and the positive dynamics of its competitiveness. The article analyzes the trends and highlights the principles of deployment of the process of forming a systemic springboard of competition institutions as an element of state economic policy. Special attention is paid to a new spatial strategy containing proposals to counteract inter-regional imbalances and mitigate imbalances in the socio-economic conditions of individual regions. The main trends and problems of development of the national economic space are analyzed. The role of the human factor as a leading specific factor in competitive relations is emphasized. The author analyzes regional development imbalances that are systemic in nature and, of course, have a negative impact on markets and the quality of their competitive environment, as well as macroeconomic indicators. The role of transport infrastructure in reducing the level of interregional differentiation in the socio-economic development of the subjects of the Russian Federation and stimulating competitive relations is updated. The assessment of the level of competition development in the country is given; the work carried out by the state at all hierarchical levels of the economy in the field of competition development, including the influence of the state on business activity. There are two main directions of activation of competitive relations in the framework of strategic planning: methodological and organizational and economic